General Rule: It is possible to alter the bracha of fruits and vegetables by cooking or blending them.
1. Raw VS Cooked
1. Fruits and vegetables which are normally eaten cooked but not raw – would receive their ideal bracha (He’eitz or Ha’adoma) when cooked, and only shehakol when eaten raw.
2. Fruits and vegetables which are normally eaten raw and not cooked – receive their ideal bracha in their raw state, and a shehakol when cooked.
3. Fruits and vegetables which are normally eaten either raw or cooked, receive their ideal bracha both when raw or cooked.
4. When deciding the normal manner of eating a particular fruit or vegetable – it is not that raw VS cooked has to be 50-50. As long as it wouldn’t be considered strange in that particular location – then it would maintain the ideal bracha.
5. Location: Although people generally cook or steam string beans and zucchini, it is also acceptable to eat them raw in America. Therefore, raw string beans would be Ha’adoma in America. However, since almost no one does so in Israel, raw string beans would be shehakol.
An American visiting Israel would follow his America customs, but one would makes aliyah would need to adopt Israel’s custom, and would now have to make shehakol on raw string beans.
The Shulchan Aruch writes (O.C. 205:4) that even finely chopped fruits and vegetables retain their ideal bracha. If however, there were blended to a puree - well then it is a dispute among the Rishonim. Rambam is of the opinion that fruits never lose their identity even when mashed to an unrecognizable puree. Rashi, on the other hand, holds that a solid fruit looses it's identity when it turns into a liquid.
The halachic consensus is that one should make a shehakol on fruits and vegetables that are mashed or blended so much that they are no unrecognizable.
If part is mashed and part remains intact in chunks like the pieces in jelly – it would retain its ideal bracha. Preferably, when one makes the ideal bracha, he should try to include an intact chunk in his first bite and have in mind to cover the jelly part.
Popcorn retains its Ha’adoma even after popping – because despite changing in physical appearance, the kernel remains intact.
Side Point : These rules of “not being recognizable” only apply to vegetables and fruits, whereas rice and the five grains retain their ideal bracha even when milled into fine flour. Therefore, cake made with wheat flour is mezonot despite the fact you can’t recognize the wheat in the cake.
Exception: There are some fruits and vegetables which even after a thorough mashing are recognizable due to their unique texture. The examples I know for sure are bananas, eggplant, and potatoes. Therefore, finely mashed potatoes are nevertheless Ha’adoma.
According to Rav Bodner, Peanuts do not have their own unique texture and therefore plain smooth peanut butter would be shehakol. However, there are poskim that argue and contend that even smooth Peanut Butter is Ha'adoma. The good news is that since almost all the time people eat peanut butter on bread or crackers - it becomes tofel (see the laws of Ikar and Tofel) and this dispute is merely hypothetical.
3. BedeEved - After the Fact
If one made the ideal bracha on a food which really deserved a shehakol since it had been significantly altered - the bracha, nevertheless, works and a new bracha would NOT be needed.
Some Common Examples:
Popcorn – Ha’adoma, since kernel is intact
Apple Sauce - If merely mashed - Ha'eitz, but if strained then shehakol